Of the neurogenic zones in the adult brain, adult hippocampal neurogenesis attracts the most attention, because it is involved in higher cognitive function, most notably memory processes, and certain affective behaviors. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is also found in humans at a considerable level and appears to contribute significantly to hippocampal plasticity across the life span, because it is regulated by activity. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis generates new excitatory granule cells in the dentate gyrus, whose axons form the mossy fiber tract that links the dentate gyrus to CA3. It originates from a population of radial glia-like precursor cells type 1 cells that have astrocytic properties, express markers of neural stem cells and divide rarely. They give rise to intermediate progenitor cells with first glial type 2a and then neuronal type 2b phenotype.
Neurogenesis in the adult human hippocampus | Nature Medicine
Regeneration and Brain Repair View all 9 Articles. These are exciting times for research on adult hippocampal neurogenesis AHN. Debate and controversy regarding the existence of generation of new neurons in the adult, and even diseased human brain flourishes as articles against and in favor accumulate. Adult neurogenesis in the human brain is a phenomenon that does not share the qualities of quantum mechanics. The scientific community should agree that human AHN exists or does not, but not both at the same time.
The formation of new neurons in the adult central nervous system CNS has been recognized as one of the major findings in neuroanatomical research. The hippocampal formation HF , one of the main targets of these investigations, holds a neurogenic niche widely recognized among several mammalian species and whose existence in the human brain has sparked controversy and extensive debate. Many cellular features from this region emphasize that hippocampal neurogenesis suffers changes with normal aging and, among regulatory factors, physical exercise and chronic stress provoke opposite effects on cell proliferation, maturation and survival. Considering the numerous functions attributable to the HF, increasing or decreasing the integration of new neurons in the delicate neuronal network might be significant for modulation of cognition and emotion.